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正义论

热度 5已有 28319 次阅读11/20/2010 23:56 |系统分类:文化

正义论

郭国汀

什么是正义?法律是有关强制力的规则;正义是有关道德的规则。实证主义与自然法事实上可以通过自然法[1]与自然正义相连;正如霍布斯和亚里士多德[2]加调的那样,正义是有关道德的规则,某种非正义的法律,其作为实在法有强制力,正如西赛罗[3],阿奎那[4]和许多其他法学家所讨论的那样,并非有法律约束力的法律。

柏拉图在考虑讨论内在诚实与正直并由此导出外在的诚实与正直时说:正义与人的外在因素无关,而与人的内在的真实自我和利害密切相关。因为正义的人不会允许他心中的某些因素相互干扰,或任由这些因素去做其他人的工作,他确立自已内在生活的秩序,做自已的主人,订立自已的法律,与自已和平共处;当他将前述内在可能与规模更高,更低,或居中的注释相比的三项原则相互约束时,以及中间间隔什么时,他有界限所有这些一起,不再是很多,但是成为一种完全温和与完美被调整的性质,然后他行动的收益,如果他必须行动,无论在财产的一件事情,或者在身体的治疗中,或者在政治或者私人商业的某些事情;始终想和叫喊那保护和与这个和谐的条件合作合理和好的行动,以及主持它的知识智慧,那任何时候损害他将叫的这个条件不公平的行动,以及主持它的见解无知[5]



[1].   HOBBES, LEVIATHAN, Ch. XIV, para. 3. Hobbes' lex naturalis is the law of self preservation, implicitly via the use of force if necessary.

[2].   ARISTOTLE, POLITICS, Book V. What do we mean by "justice"?law is about force; justice is about morality. Positivism and natural law can, in fact, be linked (as Hobbes and Aristotle did) by distinguishing natural law (lex naturale) from natural justice. Justice is about morality, and an unjust law, while positively obligatory, is not legally binding - as Cicero, Aquinas, and many others discussed.

[3].   CICERO, THE REPUBLIC at 111, XXII (Loeb Classical Library, 1950), available at:  (lat.).

[4].   THOMAS AQUINAS, SUMMA THEOLOGICA, SECUNDA SECUNDAE PARTIS §57 (Right), available at: .

[5] Martin, Thomas Owen, Justice, 2 Cath. U. Am. L. Rev.  (1952)  ,65. Plato considers it when he discusses the inner rectitude from which outer rectitude flows. Justice, he says, is concerned not with the outward man, but with the inward, which is the true self and concernment of man: for the just man does not permit the several elements within him to interfere with one another, or any of them to do the work of others-he sets in order his own inner life, and is his own master and his own law, and at peace with himself; and when he has bound together the three principles within him, which may be compared to the higher, lower, and middle notes of the scale, and the intermediate intervals-when he has bound all these together, and is no longer many, but has become one entirely temperate and perfectly adjusted nature, then he proceeds to act, if he has to act, whether in a matter of property, or in the treatment of the body, or in some affair of politics or private business; always thinking and calling that which preserves and cooperates with this harmonious condition just and good action, and the knowledge which presides over it wisdom, and that which at any time impairs this condition he will call unjust action, and the opinion which presides over it ignorance.


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发表评论 评论 (31 个评论)

回复 郭国汀 11/21/2010 00:19
Justice is the insurance we have no our lives and property, and obedience is the premium we pay for it. –Penn.
正义是我们的生命和财产所没有的保险,礼敬是我们支付的保险金。-潘恩-
回复 郭国汀 11/21/2010 00:20
Justice is the first virtue of those who command, and stops the complaints of those who obey.-Diderot.
正义是那些统治者最迫切需要的首要美德,是消除和制止被统治者抱怨的最佳良方。-迪德罗-
回复 郭国汀 11/21/2010 00:20
Justice delayed, is justice denied.- Gladstone.
迟到的正义即是拒绝正义。
回复 郭国汀 11/21/2010 00:22
Justice, like lightning, ever should appear to few men’s ruin, but to all men’s fear. –Sweetman.
正义象闪电,从来仅在少数人毁灭之际出现,但它总是在所有的人均受恐惧困惑之时现身。
回复 郭国汀 11/21/2010 00:22
Mankind are always found prodigal both of blood and treasure in the maintenance of public justice.-Hume.
人类发现在维护公共正义时总是充满血腥和财富。-休默-
回复 郭国汀 11/21/2010 00:23
How can a people be free that has not learned to be just?-Sieyes.
如果不知道何谓正义,人民如何可能获得自由?
回复 郭国汀 11/21/2010 00:25
Justice and power must be brought together, so that whatever is just may be powerful. And whatever is powerful may be just.-Pascal.
正义应当与权力相结合,这种社会才能既正义又强而有力,既强劲又不偏离正义。
回复 郭国汀 11/21/2010 00:26
Justice is to give to every man his own. –Aristotle.
正义是赋予每个人其所应拥有的东西(正义即各得其所)。-亚里士多德-
回复 郭国汀 11/21/2010 00:37
Justice without strength, or strength without justice-fearful misfortrness!-Joubert.
虽有正义却没有权力,或拥有权力而缺正义,均是可怕的不幸!
回复 郭国汀 11/21/2010 00:37
An honest man nearly always thinks justly. –Rousseau.
一个诚实的人,几乎总是正义地思索。-芦梭-
回复 王藏 11/24/2010 07:04
我的简单看法:正义是最崇高的美德,是人类良知的外在体现,是善良的强制力。
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